Hodrick-Prescott Cycle Component (YavuzAkbay)The Hodrick-Prescott Cycle Component indicator in Pine Script™ is an advanced tool that helps traders isolate and analyze the cyclical deviations in asset prices from their underlying trend. This script calculates the cycle component of the price series using the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter, allowing traders to observe and interpret the short-term price movements around the long-term trend. By providing two views—Percentage and Price Difference—this indicator gives flexibility in how these cyclical movements are visualized and interpreted.
What This Script Does
This indicator focuses exclusively on the cycle component of the price, which is the deviation of the current price from the long-term trend calculated by the HP filter. This deviation (or "cycle") is what traders analyze for mean-reversion opportunities and overbought/oversold conditions. The script allows users to see this deviation in two ways:
Percentage Difference: Shows the deviation as a percentage of the trend, giving a normalized view of the price’s distance from its trend component.
Price Difference: Shows the deviation in absolute price terms, reflecting how many price units the price is above or below the trend.
How It Works
Trend Component Calculation with the HP Filter: Using the HP filter, the script isolates the trend component of the price. The smoothness of this trend is controlled by the smoothness parameter (λ), which can be adjusted by the user. A higher λ value results in a smoother trend, while a lower λ value makes it more responsive to short-term changes.
Cycle Component Calculation: Percentage Deviation (cycle_pct) calculated as the difference between the current price and the trend, divided by the trend, and then multiplied by 100. This metric shows how far the price deviates from the trend in relative terms. Price Difference (cycle_price) simply the difference between the current price and the trend component, displaying the deviation in absolute price units.
Conditional Plotting: The user can choose to view the cycle component as either a percentage or a price difference by selecting the Display Mode input. The indicator will plot the chosen mode in a separate pane, helping traders focus on the preferred measure of deviation.
How to Use This Indicator
Identify Overbought/Oversold Conditions: When the cycle component deviates significantly from the zero line (shown with a dashed horizontal line), it may indicate overbought or oversold conditions. For instance, a high positive cycle component suggests the price may be overbought relative to the trend, while a large negative cycle suggests potential oversold conditions.
Mean-Reversion Strategy: In mean-reverting markets, traders can use this indicator to spot potential reversal points. For example, if the cycle component shows an extreme deviation from zero, it could signal that the price is likely to revert to the trend. This can help traders with entry and exit points when the asset is expected to correct back toward its trend.
Trend Strength and Cycle Analysis: By comparing the magnitude and duration of deviations, traders can gauge the strength of cycles and assess if a new trend might be forming. If the cycle component remains consistently positive or negative, it may indicate a persistent market bias, even as prices fluctuate around the trend.
Percentage vs. Price Difference Views: Use the Percentage Difference mode to standardize deviations and compare across assets or different timeframes. This is especially helpful when analyzing assets with varying price levels. Use the Price Difference mode when an absolute deviation (price units) is more intuitive for spotting overbought/oversold levels based on the asset’s actual price.
Using with Hodrick-Prescott: You can also use Hodrick-Prescott, another indicator that I have adapted to the Tradingview platform, to see the trend on the chart, and you can also use this indicator to see how far the price is deviating from the trend. This gives you a multifaceted perspective on your trades.
Practical Tips for Traders
Set the Smoothness Parameter (λ): Adjust the λ parameter to match your trading timeframe and asset characteristics. Lower values make the trend more sensitive, which might suit short-term trading, while higher values smooth out the trend for long-term analysis.
Cycle Component as Confirmation: Combine this indicator with other momentum or trend indicators for confirmation of overbought/oversold signals. For example, use the cycle component with RSI or MACD to validate the likelihood of mean-reversion.
Observe Divergences: Divergences between price movements and the cycle component can indicate potential reversals. If the price hits a new high, but the cycle component shows a smaller deviation than previous highs, it could signal a weakening trend.

# Hodrickprescott

Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform of Filtered Price [Loxx]Down the Rabbit Hole We Go: A Deep Dive into the Mysteries of Quinn-Fernandes Fast Fourier Transform and Hodrick-Prescott Filtering
In the ever-evolving landscape of financial markets, the ability to accurately identify and exploit underlying market patterns is of paramount importance. As market participants continuously search for innovative tools to gain an edge in their trading and investment strategies, advanced mathematical techniques, such as the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform and the Hodrick-Prescott Filter, have emerged as powerful analytical tools. This comprehensive analysis aims to delve into the rich history and theoretical foundations of these techniques, exploring their applications in financial time series analysis, particularly in the context of a sophisticated trading indicator. Furthermore, we will critically assess the limitations and challenges associated with these transformative tools, while offering practical insights and recommendations for overcoming these hurdles to maximize their potential in the financial domain.
Our investigation will begin with a comprehensive examination of the origins and development of both the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform and the Hodrick-Prescott Filter. We will trace their roots from classical Fourier analysis and time series smoothing to their modern-day adaptive iterations. We will elucidate the key concepts and mathematical underpinnings of these techniques and demonstrate how they are synergistically used in the context of the trading indicator under study.
As we progress, we will carefully consider the potential drawbacks and challenges associated with using the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform and the Hodrick-Prescott Filter as integral components of a trading indicator. By providing a critical evaluation of their computational complexity, sensitivity to input parameters, assumptions about data stationarity, performance in noisy environments, and their nature as lagging indicators, we aim to offer a balanced and comprehensive understanding of these powerful analytical tools.
In conclusion, this in-depth analysis of the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform and the Hodrick-Prescott Filter aims to provide a solid foundation for financial market participants seeking to harness the potential of these advanced techniques in their trading and investment strategies. By shedding light on their history, applications, and limitations, we hope to equip traders and investors with the knowledge and insights necessary to make informed decisions and, ultimately, achieve greater success in the highly competitive world of finance.
█ Fourier Transform and Hodrick-Prescott Filter in Financial Time Series Analysis
Financial time series analysis plays a crucial role in making informed decisions about investments and trading strategies. Among the various methods used in this domain, the Fourier Transform and the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) Filter have emerged as powerful techniques for processing and analyzing financial data. This section aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of these two methodologies, their significance in financial time series analysis, and their combined application to enhance trading strategies.
█ The Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform: History, Applications, and Use in Financial Time Series Analysis
The Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform is an advanced spectral estimation technique developed by John J. Quinn and Mauricio A. Fernandes in the early 1990s. It builds upon the classical Fourier Transform by introducing an adaptive approach that improves the identification of dominant frequencies in noisy signals. This section will explore the history of the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform, its applications in various domains, and its specific use in financial time series analysis.
History of the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform
The Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform was introduced in a 1993 paper titled "The Application of Adaptive Estimation to the Interpolation of Missing Values in Noisy Signals." In this paper, Quinn and Fernandes developed an adaptive spectral estimation algorithm to address the limitations of the classical Fourier Transform when analyzing noisy signals.
The classical Fourier Transform is a powerful mathematical tool that decomposes a function or a time series into a sum of sinusoids, making it easier to identify underlying patterns and trends. However, its performance can be negatively impacted by noise and missing data points, leading to inaccurate frequency identification.
Quinn and Fernandes sought to address these issues by developing an adaptive algorithm that could more accurately identify the dominant frequencies in a noisy signal, even when data points were missing. This adaptive algorithm, now known as the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform, employs an iterative approach to refine the frequency estimates, ultimately resulting in improved spectral estimation.
Applications of the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform
The Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform has found applications in various fields, including signal processing, telecommunications, geophysics, and biomedical engineering. Its ability to accurately identify dominant frequencies in noisy signals makes it a valuable tool for analyzing and interpreting data in these domains.
For example, in telecommunications, the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform can be used to analyze the performance of communication systems and identify interference patterns. In geophysics, it can help detect and analyze seismic signals and vibrations, leading to improved understanding of geological processes. In biomedical engineering, the technique can be employed to analyze physiological signals, such as electrocardiograms, leading to more accurate diagnoses and better patient care.
Use of the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform in Financial Time Series Analysis
In financial time series analysis, the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform can be a powerful tool for isolating the dominant cycles and frequencies in asset price data. By more accurately identifying these critical cycles, traders can better understand the underlying dynamics of financial markets and develop more effective trading strategies.
The Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform is used in conjunction with the Hodrick-Prescott Filter, a technique that separates the underlying trend from the cyclical component in a time series. By first applying the Hodrick-Prescott Filter to the financial data, short-term fluctuations and noise are removed, resulting in a smoothed representation of the underlying trend. This smoothed data is then subjected to the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform, allowing for more accurate identification of the dominant cycles and frequencies in the asset price data.
By employing the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform in this manner, traders can gain a deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics of financial time series and develop more effective trading strategies. The enhanced knowledge of market cycles and frequencies can lead to improved risk management and ultimately, better investment performance.
The Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform is an advanced spectral estimation technique that has proven valuable in various domains, including financial time series analysis. Its adaptive approach to frequency identification addresses the limitations of the classical Fourier Transform when analyzing noisy signals, leading to more accurate and reliable analysis. By employing the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform in financial time series analysis, traders can gain a deeper understanding of the underlying financial instrument.
Drawbacks to the Quinn-Fernandes algorithm
While the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform is an effective tool for identifying dominant cycles and frequencies in financial time series, it is not without its drawbacks. Some of the limitations and challenges associated with this indicator include:
1. Computational complexity: The adaptive nature of the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform requires iterative calculations, which can lead to increased computational complexity. This can be particularly challenging when analyzing large datasets or when the indicator is used in real-time trading environments.
2. Sensitivity to input parameters: The performance of the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform is dependent on the choice of input parameters, such as the number of harmonic periods, frequency tolerance, and Hodrick-Prescott filter settings. Choosing inappropriate parameter values can lead to inaccurate frequency identification or reduced performance. Finding the optimal parameter settings can be challenging, and may require trial and error or a more sophisticated optimization process.
3. Assumption of stationary data: The Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform assumes that the underlying data is stationary, meaning that its statistical properties do not change over time. However, financial time series data is often non-stationary, with changing trends and volatility. This can limit the effectiveness of the indicator and may require additional preprocessing steps, such as detrending or differencing, to ensure the data meets the assumptions of the algorithm.
4. Limitations in noisy environments: Although the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform is designed to handle noisy signals, its performance may still be negatively impacted by significant noise levels. In such cases, the identification of dominant frequencies may become less reliable, leading to suboptimal trading signals or strategies.
5. Lagging indicator: As with many technical analysis tools, the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform is a lagging indicator, meaning that it is based on past data. While it can provide valuable insights into historical market dynamics, its ability to predict future price movements may be limited. This can result in false signals or late entries and exits, potentially reducing the effectiveness of trading strategies based on this indicator.
Despite these drawbacks, the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform remains a valuable tool for financial time series analysis when used appropriately. By being aware of its limitations and adjusting input parameters or preprocessing steps as needed, traders can still benefit from its ability to identify dominant cycles and frequencies in financial data, and use this information to inform their trading strategies.
█ Deep-dive into the Hodrick-Prescott Fitler
The Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter is a statistical tool used in economics and finance to separate a time series into two components: a trend component and a cyclical component. It is a powerful tool for identifying long-term trends in economic and financial data and is widely used by economists, central banks, and financial institutions around the world.
The HP filter was first introduced in the 1990s by economists Robert Hodrick and Edward Prescott. It is a simple, two-parameter filter that separates a time series into a trend component and a cyclical component. The trend component represents the long-term behavior of the data, while the cyclical component captures the shorter-term fluctuations around the trend.
The HP filter works by minimizing the following objective function:
Minimize: (Sum of Squared Deviations) + λ (Sum of Squared Second Differences)
Where:
1. The first term represents the deviation of the data from the trend.
2. The second term represents the smoothness of the trend.
3. λ is a smoothing parameter that determines the degree of smoothness of the trend.
The smoothing parameter λ is typically set to a value between 100 and 1600, depending on the frequency of the data. Higher values of λ lead to a smoother trend, while lower values lead to a more volatile trend.
The HP filter has several advantages over other smoothing techniques. It is a non-parametric method, meaning that it does not make any assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data. It also allows for easy comparison of trends across different time series and can be used with data of any frequency.
Another significant advantage of the HP Filter is its ability to adapt to changes in the underlying trend. This feature makes it particularly well-suited for analyzing financial time series, which often exhibit non-stationary behavior. By employing the HP Filter to smooth financial data, traders can more accurately identify and analyze the long-term trends that drive asset prices, ultimately leading to better-informed investment decisions.
However, the HP filter also has some limitations. It assumes that the trend is a smooth function, which may not be the case in some situations. It can also be sensitive to changes in the smoothing parameter λ, which may result in different trends for the same data. Additionally, the filter may produce unrealistic trends for very short time series.
Despite these limitations, the HP filter remains a valuable tool for analyzing economic and financial data. It is widely used by central banks and financial institutions to monitor long-term trends in the economy, and it can be used to identify turning points in the business cycle. The filter can also be used to analyze asset prices, exchange rates, and other financial variables.
The Hodrick-Prescott filter is a powerful tool for analyzing economic and financial data. It separates a time series into a trend component and a cyclical component, allowing for easy identification of long-term trends and turning points in the business cycle. While it has some limitations, it remains a valuable tool for economists, central banks, and financial institutions around the world.
█ Combined Application of Fourier Transform and Hodrick-Prescott Filter
The integration of the Fourier Transform and the Hodrick-Prescott Filter in financial time series analysis can offer several benefits. By first applying the HP Filter to the financial data, traders can remove short-term fluctuations and noise, effectively isolating the underlying trend. This smoothed data can then be subjected to the Fourier Transform, allowing for the identification of dominant cycles and frequencies with greater precision.
By combining these two powerful techniques, traders can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying dynamics of financial time series. This enhanced knowledge can lead to the development of more effective trading strategies, better risk management, and ultimately, improved investment performance.
The Fourier Transform and the Hodrick-Prescott Filter are powerful tools for financial time series analysis. Each technique offers unique benefits, with the Fourier Transform being adept at identifying dominant cycles and frequencies, and the HP Filter excelling at isolating long-term trends from short-term noise. By combining these methodologies, traders can develop a deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics of financial time series, leading to more informed investment decisions and improved trading strategies. As the financial markets continue to evolve, the combined application of these techniques will undoubtedly remain an essential aspect of modern financial analysis.
█ Features
Endpointed and Non-repainting
This is an endpointed and non-repainting indicator. These are crucial factors that contribute to its usefulness and reliability in trading and investment strategies. Let us break down these concepts and discuss why they matter in the context of a financial indicator.
1. Endpoint nature: An endpoint indicator uses the most recent data points to calculate its values, ensuring that the output is timely and reflective of the current market conditions. This is in contrast to non-endpoint indicators, which may use earlier data points in their calculations, potentially leading to less timely or less relevant results. By utilizing the most recent data available, the endpoint nature of this indicator ensures that it remains up-to-date and relevant, providing traders and investors with valuable and actionable insights into the market dynamics.
2. Non-repainting characteristic: A non-repainting indicator is one that does not change its values or signals after they have been generated. This means that once a signal or a value has been plotted on the chart, it will remain there, and future data will not affect it. This is crucial for traders and investors, as it offers a sense of consistency and certainty when making decisions based on the indicator's output.
Repainting indicators, on the other hand, can change their values or signals as new data comes in, effectively "repainting" the past. This can be problematic for several reasons:
a. Misleading results: Repainting indicators can create the illusion of a highly accurate or successful trading system when backtesting, as the indicator may adapt its past signals to fit the historical price data. This can lead to overly optimistic performance results that may not hold up in real-time trading.
b. Decision-making uncertainty: When an indicator repaints, it becomes challenging for traders and investors to trust its signals, as the signal that prompted a trade may change or disappear after the fact. This can create confusion and indecision, making it difficult to execute a consistent trading strategy.
The endpoint and non-repainting characteristics of this indicator contribute to its overall reliability and effectiveness as a tool for trading and investment decision-making. By providing timely and consistent information, this indicator helps traders and investors make well-informed decisions that are less likely to be influenced by misleading or shifting data.
Inputs
Source: This input determines the source of the price data to be used for the calculations. Users can select from options like closing price, opening price, high, low, etc., based on their preferences. Changing the source of the price data (e.g., from closing price to opening price) will alter the base data used for calculations, which may lead to different patterns and cycles being identified.
Calculation Bars: This input represents the number of past bars used for the calculation. A higher value will use more historical data for the analysis, while a lower value will focus on more recent price data. Increasing the number of past bars used for calculation will incorporate more historical data into the analysis. This may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of long-term trends but could also result in a slower response to recent price changes. Decreasing this value will focus more on recent data, potentially making the indicator more responsive to short-term fluctuations.
Harmonic Period: This input represents the harmonic period, which is the number of harmonics used in the Fourier Transform. A higher value will result in more harmonics being used, potentially capturing more complex cycles in the price data. Increasing the harmonic period will include more harmonics in the Fourier Transform, potentially capturing more complex cycles in the price data. However, this may also introduce more noise and make it harder to identify clear patterns. Decreasing this value will focus on simpler cycles and may make the analysis clearer, but it might miss out on more complex patterns.
Frequency Tolerance: This input represents the frequency tolerance, which determines how close the frequencies of the harmonics must be to be considered part of the same cycle. A higher value will allow for more variation between harmonics, while a lower value will require the frequencies to be more similar. Increasing the frequency tolerance will allow for more variation between harmonics, potentially capturing a broader range of cycles. However, this may also introduce noise and make it more difficult to identify clear patterns. Decreasing this value will require the frequencies to be more similar, potentially making the analysis clearer, but it might miss out on some cycles.
Number of Bars to Render: This input determines the number of bars to render on the chart. A higher value will result in more historical data being displayed, but it may also slow down the computation due to the increased amount of data being processed. Increasing the number of bars to render on the chart will display more historical data, providing a broader context for the analysis. However, this may also slow down the computation due to the increased amount of data being processed. Decreasing this value will speed up the computation, but it will provide less historical context for the analysis.
Smoothing Mode: This input allows the user to choose between two smoothing modes for the source price data: no smoothing or Hodrick-Prescott (HP) smoothing. The choice depends on the user's preference for how the price data should be processed before the Fourier Transform is applied. Choosing between no smoothing and Hodrick-Prescott (HP) smoothing will affect the preprocessing of the price data. Using HP smoothing will remove some of the short-term fluctuations from the data, potentially making the analysis clearer and more focused on longer-term trends. Not using smoothing will retain the original price fluctuations, which may provide more detail but also introduce noise into the analysis.
Hodrick-Prescott Filter Period: This input represents the Hodrick-Prescott filter period, which is used if the user chooses to apply HP smoothing to the price data. A higher value will result in a smoother curve, while a lower value will retain more of the original price fluctuations. Increasing the Hodrick-Prescott filter period will result in a smoother curve for the price data, emphasizing longer-term trends and minimizing short-term fluctuations. Decreasing this value will retain more of the original price fluctuations, potentially providing more detail but also introducing noise into the analysis.
Alets and signals
This indicator featues alerts, signals and bar coloring. You have to option to turn these on/off in the settings menu.
Maximum Bars Restriction
This indicator requires a large amount of processing power to render on the chart. To reduce overhead, the setting "Number of Bars to Render" is set to 500 bars. You can adjust this to you liking.
█ Related Indicators and Libraries
Goertzel Cycle Composite Wave
Goertzel Browser
Fourier Spectrometer of Price w/ Extrapolation Forecast
Fourier Extrapolator of 'Caterpillar' SSA of Price
Normalized, Variety, Fast Fourier Transform Explorer
Real-Fast Fourier Transform of Price Oscillator
Real-Fast Fourier Transform of Price w/ Linear Regression
Fourier Extrapolation of Variety Moving Averages
Fourier Extrapolator of Variety RSI w/ Bollinger Bands
Fourier Extrapolator of Price w/ Projection Forecast
Fourier Extrapolator of Price
STD-Stepped Fast Cosine Transform Moving Average
Variety RSI of Fast Discrete Cosine Transform
loxfft

Lyapunov Hodrick-Prescott Oscillator w/ DSL [Loxx]Lyapunov Hodrick-Prescott Oscillator w/ DSL is a Hodrick-Prescott Channel Filter that is modified using the Lyapunov stability algorithm to turn the filter into an oscillator. Signals are created using Discontinued Signal Lines.
What is the Lyapunov Stability?
As soon as scientists realized that the evolution of physical systems can be described in terms of mathematical equations, the stability of the various dynamical regimes was recognized as a matter of primary importance. The interest for this question was not only motivated by general curiosity, but also by the need to know, in the XIX century, to what extent the behavior of suitable mechanical devices remains unchanged, once their configuration has been perturbed. As a result, illustrious scientists such as Lagrange, Poisson, Maxwell and others deeply thought about ways of quantifying the stability both in general and specific contexts. The first exact definition of stability was given by the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Lyapunov who addressed the problem in his PhD Thesis in 1892, where he introduced two methods, the first of which is based on the linearization of the equations of motion and has originated what has later been termed Lyapunov exponents (LE). (Lyapunov 1992)
The interest in it suddenly skyrocketed during the Cold War period when the so-called "Second Method of Lyapunov" (see below) was found to be applicable to the stability of aerospace guidance systems which typically contain strong nonlinearities not treatable by other methods. A large number of publications appeared then and since in the control and systems literature. More recently the concept of the Lyapunov exponent (related to Lyapunov's First Method of discussing stability) has received wide interest in connection with chaos theory . Lyapunov stability methods have also been applied to finding equilibrium solutions in traffic assignment problems.
In practice, Lyapunov exponents can be computed by exploiting the natural tendency of an n-dimensional volume to align along the n most expanding subspace. From the expansion rate of an n-dimensional volume, one obtains the sum of the n largest Lyapunov exponents. Altogether, the procedure requires evolving n linearly independent perturbations and one is faced with the problem that all vectors tend to align along the same direction. However, as shown in the late '70s, this numerical instability can be counterbalanced by orthonormalizing the vectors with the help of the Gram-Schmidt procedure (Benettin et al. 1980, Shimada and Nagashima 1979) (or, equivalently with a QR decomposition). As a result, the LE λi, naturally ordered from the largest to the most negative one, can be computed: they are altogether referred to as the Lyapunov spectrum.
The Lyapunov exponent "λ" , is useful for distinguishing among the various types of orbits. It works for discrete as well as continuous systems.
λ < 0
The orbit attracts to a stable fixed point or stable periodic orbit. Negative Lyapunov exponents are characteristic of dissipative or non-conservative systems (the damped harmonic oscillator for instance). Such systems exhibit asymptotic stability; the more negative the exponent, the greater the stability. Superstable fixed points and superstable periodic points have a Lyapunov exponent of λ = −∞. This is something akin to a critically damped oscillator in that the system heads towards its equilibrium point as quickly as possible.
λ = 0
The orbit is a neutral fixed point (or an eventually fixed point). A Lyapunov exponent of zero indicates that the system is in some sort of steady state mode. A physical system with this exponent is conservative. Such systems exhibit Lyapunov stability. Take the case of two identical simple harmonic oscillators with different amplitudes. Because the frequency is independent of the amplitude, a phase portrait of the two oscillators would be a pair of concentric circles. The orbits in this situation would maintain a constant separation, like two flecks of dust fixed in place on a rotating record.
λ > 0
The orbit is unstable and chaotic. Nearby points, no matter how close, will diverge to any arbitrary separation. All neighborhoods in the phase space will eventually be visited. These points are said to be unstable. For a discrete system, the orbits will look like snow on a television set. This does not preclude any organization as a pattern may emerge. Thus the snow may be a bit lumpy. For a continuous system, the phase space would be a tangled sea of wavy lines like a pot of spaghetti. A physical example can be found in Brownian motion. Although the system is deterministic, there is no order to the orbit that ensues.
For our purposes here, we transform the HP by applying Lyapunov Stability as follows:
output = math.log(math.abs(HP / HP ))
You can read more about Lyapunov Stability here: Measuring Chaos
What is. the Hodrick-Prescott Filter?
The Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter refers to a data-smoothing technique. The HP filter is commonly applied during analysis to remove short-term fluctuations associated with the business cycle. Removal of these short-term fluctuations reveals long-term trends.
The Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter is a tool commonly used in macroeconomics. It is named after economists Robert Hodrick and Edward Prescott who first popularized this filter in economics in the 1990s. Hodrick was an economist who specialized in international finance. Prescott won the Nobel Memorial Prize, sharing it with another economist for their research in macroeconomics.
This filter determines the long-term trend of a time series by discounting the importance of short-term price fluctuations. In practice, the filter is used to smooth and detrend the Conference Board's Help Wanted Index (HWI) so it can be benchmarked against the Bureau of Labor Statistic's (BLS) JOLTS, an economic data series that may more accurately measure job vacancies in the U.S.
The HP filter is one of the most widely used tools in macroeconomic analysis. It tends to have favorable results if the noise is distributed normally, and when the analysis being conducted is historical.
What are DSL Discontinued Signal Line?
A lot of indicators are using signal lines in order to determine the trend (or some desired state of the indicator) easier. The idea of the signal line is easy : comparing the value to it's smoothed (slightly lagging) state, the idea of current momentum/state is made.
Discontinued signal line is inheriting that simple signal line idea and it is extending it : instead of having one signal line, more lines depending on the current value of the indicator.
"Signal" line is calculated the following way :
When a certain level is crossed into the desired direction, the EMA of that value is calculated for the desired signal line
When that level is crossed into the opposite direction, the previous "signal" line value is simply "inherited" and it becomes a kind of a level
This way it becomes a combination of signal lines and levels that are trying to combine both the good from both methods.
In simple terms, DSL uses the concept of a signal line and betters it by inheriting the previous signal line's value & makes it a level.
Included:
Bar coloring
Alerts
Signals
Loxx's Expanded Source Types

Hodrick-Prescott Extrapolation of Price [Loxx]Hodrick-Prescott Extrapolation of Price is a Hodrick-Prescott filter used to extrapolate price.
The distinctive feature of the Hodrick-Prescott filter is that it does not delay. It is calculated by minimizing the objective function.
F = Sum((y(i) - x(i))^2,i=0..n-1) + lambda*Sum((y(i+1)+y(i-1)-2*y(i))^2,i=1..n-2)
where x() - prices, y() - filter values.
If the Hodrick-Prescott filter sees the future, then what future values does it suggest? To answer this question, we should find the digital low-frequency filter with the frequency parameter similar to the Hodrick-Prescott filter's one but with the values calculated directly using the past values of the "twin filter" itself, i.e.
y(i) = Sum(a(k)*x(i-k),k=0..nx-1) - FIR filter
or
y(i) = Sum(a(k)*x(i-k),k=0..nx-1) + Sum(b(k)*y(i-k),k=1..ny) - IIR filter
It is better to select the "twin filter" having the frequency-independent delay Тdel (constant group delay). IIR filters are not suitable. For FIR filters, the condition for a frequency-independent delay is as follows:
a(i) = +/-a(nx-1-i), i = 0..nx-1
The simplest FIR filter with constant delay is Simple Moving Average (SMA):
y(i) = Sum(x(i-k),k=0..nx-1)/nx
In case nx is an odd number, Тdel = (nx-1)/2. If we shift the values of SMA filter to the past by the amount of bars equal to Тdel, SMA values coincide with the Hodrick-Prescott filter ones. The exact math cannot be achieved due to the significant differences in the frequency parameters of the two filters.
To achieve the closest match between the filter values, I recommend their channel widths to be similar (for example, -6dB). The Hodrick-Prescott filter's channel width of -6dB is calculated as follows:
wc = 2*arcsin(0.5/lambda^0.25).
The channel width of -6dB for the SMA filter is calculated by numerical computing via the following equation:
|H(w)| = sin(nx*wc/2)/sin(wc/2)/nx = 0.5
Prediction algorithms:
The indicator features the two prediction methods:
Metod 1:
1. Set SMA length to 3 and shift it to the past by 1 bar. With such a length, the shifted SMA does not exist only for the last bar (Bar = 0), since it needs the value of the next future price Close(-1).
2. Calculate SMA filer's channel width. Equal it to the Hodrick-Prescott filter's one. Find lambda.
3. Calculate Hodrick-Prescott filter value at the last bar HP(0) and assume that SMA(0) with unknown Close(-1) gives the same value.
4. Find Close(-1) = 3*HP(0) - Close(0) - Close(1)
5. Increase the length of SMA to 5. Repeat all calculations and find Close(-2) = 5*HP(0) - Close(-1) - Close(0) - Close(1) - Close(2). Continue till the specified amount of future FutBars prices is calculated.
Method 2:
1. Set SMA length equal to 2*FutBars+1 and shift SMA to the past by FutBars
2. Calculate SMA filer's channel width. Equal it to the Hodrick-Prescott filter's one. Find lambda.
3. Calculate Hodrick-Prescott filter values at the last FutBars and assume that SMA behaves similarly when new prices appear.
4. Find Close(-1) = (2*FutBars+1)*HP(FutBars-1) - Sum(Close(i),i=0..2*FutBars-1), Close(-2) = (2*FutBars+1)*HP(FutBars-2) - Sum(Close(i),i=-1..2*FutBars-2), etc.
The indicator features the following inputs:
Method - prediction method
Last Bar - number of the last bar to check predictions on the existing prices (LastBar >= 0)
Past Bars - amount of previous bars the Hodrick-Prescott filter is calculated for (the more, the better, or at least PastBars>2*FutBars)
Future Bars - amount of predicted future values
The second method is more accurate but often has large spikes of the first predicted price. For our purposes here, this price has been filtered from being displayed in the chart. This is why method two starts its prediction 2 bars later than method 1. The described prediction method can be improved by searching for the FIR filter with the frequency parameter closer to the Hodrick-Prescott filter. For example, you may try Hanning, Blackman, Kaiser, and other filters with constant delay instead of SMA.
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Hodrick-Prescott MACD [Loxx]Hodrick-Prescott MACD is a MACD indicator using a Hodrick-Prescott Filter.
What is Hodrick–Prescott filter?
The Hodrick–Prescott filter (also known as Hodrick–Prescott decomposition) is a mathematical tool used in macroeconomics, especially in real business cycle theory, to remove the cyclical component of a time series from raw data. It is used to obtain a smoothed-curve representation of a time series, one that is more sensitive to long-term than to short-term fluctuations. The adjustment of the sensitivity of the trend to short-term fluctuations is achieved by modifying a multiplier Lambda.
The filter was popularized in the field of economics in the 1990s by economists Robert J. Hodrick and Nobel Memorial Prize winner Edward C. Prescott, though it was first proposed much earlier by E. T. Whittaker in 1923.
There are some drawbacks to use the HP filter than you can read here: en.wikipedia.org
Included
Bar coloring
3 types of signals
Alerts
Loxx's Expanded Source Types

Hodrick-Prescott Channel [Loxx]Hodrick-Prescott Channel is a fast and slow moving average that moves inside a channel. Breakouts are when the fast ma crosses up over the slow ma and breakdowns are the opposite. The white moving average is the fast ma, the slow moving average is the red/green ma.
What is Hodrick–Prescott filter?
The Hodrick–Prescott filter (also known as Hodrick–Prescott decomposition) is a mathematical tool used in macroeconomics, especially in real business cycle theory, to remove the cyclical component of a time series from raw data. It is used to obtain a smoothed-curve representation of a time series, one that is more sensitive to long-term than to short-term fluctuations. The adjustment of the sensitivity of the trend to short-term fluctuations is achieved by modifying a multiplier Lambda.
The filter was popularized in the field of economics in the 1990s by economists Robert J. Hodrick and Nobel Memorial Prize winner Edward C. Prescott, though it was first proposed much earlier by E. T. Whittaker in 1923.
There are some drawbacks to use the HP filter than you can read here: en.wikipedia.org
Included
Bar coloring
Signals
Alerts

Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filterThis indicator is an implamentation of Hodrick-Prescott (HP) filter
This filter is a mathematical model the can remove cyclical components from the price signal to get the trend components.
"Lambda" is the smoothing factor and can have a value between 1 and infinity.
"Length" is the number of previous prices that are included in the filter.
The default values of lambda and length work well for almost all time frames.