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The Giga Kaleidoscope GKD-BT Optimizer SCS Backtest is a backtesting module included in Loxx's "Giga Kaleidoscope Modularized Trading System."

**█ Giga Kaleidoscope GKD-BT Optimizer SCS Backtest**

The Optimizer SCS Backtest is a Solo Confirmation Simple backtest that allows traders to test single GKD-C confirmation indicators across 10 varying inputs. The purpose of this backtest is to enable traders to optimize a GKD-C indicator given varying inputs.

The backtest module supports testing with 1 take profit and 1 stop loss. It also offers the option to limit testing to a specific date range, allowing simulated forward testing using historical data. This backtest module only includes standard long and short signals. Additionally, users can choose to display or hide a trading panel that provides relevant information about the backtest, statistics, and the current trade. Traders can also select a highlighting treshold for Total Percent Wins and Percent Profitable, and Profit Factor.

To use this indicator:

1. Import a GKD-C indicator "Input into NEW GKD-BT Optimizer Backtest Signals" into the GKD-C Indicator Signals dropdown

1. Import a GKD-C indicator "Input into NEW GKD-BT Optimizer Backtest Start" into the GKD-C Indicator Start dropdown

1. Import a GKD-C indicator "Input into NEW GKD-BT Optimizer Backtest Skip" into the GKD-C Indicator Skip dropdown

**This backtest includes the following metrics:**

1. Net profit: Overall profit or loss achieved.

2. Total Closed Trades: Total number of closed trades, both winning and losing.

3. Total Percent Wins: Total wins, whether long or short, for the selected time interval regardless of commissions and other profit-modifying addons.

4. Percent Profitable: Total wins, whether long or short, that are also profitable, taking commissions into account.

5. Profit Factor: The ratio of gross profits to gross losses, indicating how much money the strategy made for every unit of money it lost.

6. Average Profit per Trade: The average gain or loss per trade, calculated by dividing the net profit by the total number of closed trades.

7. Average Number of Bars in Trade: The average number of bars that elapsed during trades for all closed trades.

**Summary of notable settings:**

Input Tickers separated by commas: Allows the user to input tickers separated by commas, specifying the symbols or tickers of financial instruments used in the backtest. The tickers should follow the format "EXCHANGE:TICKER" (e.g., "NASDAQ:AAPL, NYSE:MSFT").

Import GKD-B Baseline: Imports the "GKD-B Multi-Ticker Baseline" indicator.

Import GKD-V Volatility/Volume: Imports the "GKD-V Volatility/Volume" indicator.

Import GKD-C Confirmation: Imports the "GKD-C Confirmation" indicator.

Import GKD-C Continuation: Imports the "GKD-C Continuation" indicator.

Initial Capital: Represents the starting account balance for the backtest, denominated in the base currency of the trading account.

Order Size: Determines the quantity of contracts traded in each trade.

Order Type: Specifies the type of order used in the backtest, either "Contracts" or "% Equity."

Commission: Represents the commission per order or transaction cost incurred in each trade.

***the backtest data rendered to the chart above uses $5 commission per trade and 10% equity per trade with $1 million initial capital. Each backtest result for each ticker assumes these same inputs. The results are NOT cumulative, they are separate and isolate per ticker and trading side, long or short***

**█ Volatility Types included**

The GKD system utilizes volatility-based take profits and stop losses. Each take profit and stop loss is calculated as a multiple of volatility. You can change the values of the multipliers in the settings as well.

This module includes 17 types of volatility:

Close-to-Close

Parkinson

Garman-Klass

Rogers-Satchell

Yang-Zhang

Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang

Exponential Weighted Moving Average

Standard Deviation of Log Returns

Pseudo GARCH(2,2)

Average True Range

True Range Double

Standard Deviation

Adaptive Deviation

Median Absolute Deviation

Efficiency-Ratio Adaptive ATR

Mean Absolute Deviation

Static Percent

Various volatility estimators and indicators that investors and traders can use to measure the dispersion or volatility of a financial instrument's price. Each estimator has its strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of estimator should depend on the specific needs and circumstances of the user.

Close-to-Close

Close-to-Close volatility is a classic and widely used volatility measure, sometimes referred to as historical volatility.

Volatility is an indicator of the speed of a stock price change. A stock with high volatility is one where the price changes rapidly and with a larger amplitude. The more volatile a stock is, the riskier it is.

Close-to-close historical volatility is calculated using only a stock's closing prices. It is the simplest volatility estimator. However, in many cases, it is not precise enough. Stock prices could jump significantly during a trading session and return to the opening value at the end. That means that a considerable amount of price information is not taken into account by close-to-close volatility.

Despite its drawbacks, Close-to-Close volatility is still useful in cases where the instrument doesn't have intraday prices. For example, mutual funds calculate their net asset values daily or weekly, and thus their prices are not suitable for more sophisticated volatility estimators.

Parkinson

Parkinson volatility is a volatility measure that uses the stock’s high and low price of the day.

The main difference between regular volatility and Parkinson volatility is that the latter uses high and low prices for a day, rather than only the closing price. This is useful as close-to-close prices could show little difference while large price movements could have occurred during the day. Thus, Parkinson's volatility is considered more precise and requires less data for calculation than close-to-close volatility.

One drawback of this estimator is that it doesn't take into account price movements after the market closes. Hence, it systematically undervalues volatility. This drawback is addressed in the Garman-Klass volatility estimator.

Garman-Klass

Garman-Klass is a volatility estimator that incorporates open, low, high, and close prices of a security.

Garman-Klass volatility extends Parkinson's volatility by taking into account the opening and closing prices. As markets are most active during the opening and closing of a trading session, it makes volatility estimation more accurate.

Garman and Klass also assumed that the process of price change follows a continuous diffusion process (Geometric Brownian motion). However, this assumption has several drawbacks. The method is not robust for opening jumps in price and trend movements.

Despite its drawbacks, the Garman-Klass estimator is still more effective than the basic formula since it takes into account not only the price at the beginning and end of the time interval but also intraday price extremes.

Researchers Rogers and Satchell have proposed a more efficient method for assessing historical volatility that takes into account price trends. See Rogers-Satchell Volatility for more detail.

Rogers-Satchell

Rogers-Satchell is an estimator for measuring the volatility of securities with an average return not equal to zero.

Unlike Parkinson and Garman-Klass estimators, Rogers-Satchell incorporates a drift term (mean return not equal to zero). As a result, it provides better volatility estimation when the underlying is trending.

The main disadvantage of this method is that it does not take into account price movements between trading sessions. This leads to an underestimation of volatility since price jumps periodically occur in the market precisely at the moments between sessions.

A more comprehensive estimator that also considers the gaps between sessions was developed based on the Rogers-Satchel formula in the 2000s by Yang-Zhang. See Yang Zhang Volatility for more detail.

Yang-Zhang

Yang Zhang is a historical volatility estimator that handles both opening jumps and the drift and has a minimum estimation error.

Yang-Zhang volatility can be thought of as a combination of the overnight (close-to-open volatility) and a weighted average of the Rogers-Satchell volatility and the day’s open-to-close volatility. It is considered to be 14 times more efficient than the close-to-close estimator.

Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang

Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang (GKYZ) volatility estimator incorporates the returns of open, high, low, and closing prices in its calculation.

GKYZ volatility estimator takes into account overnight jumps but not the trend, i.e., it assumes that the underlying asset follows a Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) process with zero drift. Therefore, the GKYZ volatility estimator tends to overestimate the volatility when the drift is different from zero. However, for a GBM process, this estimator is eight times more efficient than the close-to-close volatility estimator.

Exponential Weighted Moving Average

The Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) is a quantitative or statistical measure used to model or describe a time series. The EWMA is widely used in finance, with the main applications being technical analysis and volatility modeling.

The moving average is designed such that older observations are given lower weights. The weights decrease exponentially as the data point gets older – hence the name exponentially weighted.

The only decision a user of the EWMA must make is the parameter lambda. The parameter decides how important the current observation is in the calculation of the EWMA. The higher the value of lambda, the more closely the EWMA tracks the original time series.

Standard Deviation of Log Returns

This is the simplest calculation of volatility. It's the standard deviation of ln(close/close(1)).

Pseudo GARCH(2,2)

This is calculated using a short- and long-run mean of variance multiplied by ?.

?avg(var;M) + (1 ? ?) avg(var;N) = 2?var/(M+1-(M-1)L) + 2(1-?)var/(M+1-(M-1)L)

Solving for ? can be done by minimizing the mean squared error of estimation; that is, regressing L^-1var - avg(var; N) against avg(var; M) - avg(var; N) and using the resulting beta estimate as ?.

Average True Range

The average true range (ATR) is a technical analysis indicator, introduced by market technician J. Welles Wilder Jr. in his book New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems, that measures market volatility by decomposing the entire range of an asset price for that period.

The true range indicator is taken as the greatest of the following: current high less the current low; the absolute value of the current high less the previous close; and the absolute value of the current low less the previous close. The ATR is then a moving average, generally using 14 days, of the true ranges.

True Range Double

A special case of ATR that attempts to correct for volatility skew.

Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is a statistic that measures the dispersion of a dataset relative to its mean and is calculated as the square root of the variance. The standard deviation is calculated as the square root of variance by determining each data point's deviation relative to the mean. If the data points are further from the mean, there is a higher deviation within the data set; thus, the more spread out the data, the higher the standard deviation.

Adaptive Deviation

By definition, the Standard Deviation (STD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma ? or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. In technical analysis, we usually use it to measure the level of current volatility.

Standard Deviation is based on Simple Moving Average calculation for mean value. This version of standard deviation uses the properties of EMA to calculate what can be called a new type of deviation, and since it is based on EMA, we can call it EMA deviation. Additionally, Perry Kaufman's efficiency ratio is used to make it adaptive (since all EMA type calculations are nearly perfect for adapting).

The difference when compared to the standard is significant--not just because of EMA usage, but the efficiency ratio makes it a "bit more logical" in very volatile market conditions.

Median Absolute Deviation

The median absolute deviation is a measure of statistical dispersion. Moreover, the MAD is a robust statistic, being more resilient to outliers in a data set than the standard deviation. In the standard deviation, the distances from the mean are squared, so large deviations are weighted more heavily, and thus outliers can heavily influence it. In the MAD, the deviations of a small number of outliers are irrelevant.

Because the MAD is a more robust estimator of scale than the sample variance or standard deviation, it works better with distributions without a mean or variance, such as the Cauchy distribution.

For this indicator, a manual recreation of the quantile function in Pine Script is used. This is so users have a full inside view into how this is calculated.

Efficiency-Ratio Adaptive ATR

Average True Range (ATR) is a widely used indicator for many occasions in technical analysis. It is calculated as the RMA of the true range. This version adds a "twist": it uses Perry Kaufman's Efficiency Ratio to calculate adaptive true range.

Mean Absolute Deviation

The mean absolute deviation (MAD) is a measure of variability that indicates the average distance between observations and their mean. MAD uses the original units of the data, which simplifies interpretation. Larger values signify that the data points spread out further from the average. Conversely, lower values correspond to data points bunching closer to it. The mean absolute deviation is also known as the mean deviation and average absolute deviation.

This definition of the mean absolute deviation sounds similar to the standard deviation (SD). While both measure variability, they have different calculations. In recent years, some proponents of MAD have suggested that it replace the SD as the primary measure because it is a simpler concept that better fits real life.

**█ Giga Kaleidoscope Modularized Trading System**

**Core components of an NNFX algorithmic trading strategy**

The NNFX algorithm is built on the principles of trend, momentum, and volatility. There are six core components in the NNFX trading algorithm:

1. Volatility - price volatility; e.g., Average True Range, True Range Double, Close-to-Close, etc.

2. Baseline - a moving average to identify price trend

3. Confirmation 1 - a technical indicator used to identify trends

4. Confirmation 2 - a technical indicator used to identify trends

5. Continuation - a technical indicator used to identify trends

6. Volatility/Volume - a technical indicator used to identify volatility/volume breakouts/breakdown

7. Exit - a technical indicator used to determine when a trend is exhausted

8. Metamorphosis - a technical indicator that produces a compound signal from the combination of other GKD indicators*

*(not part of the NNFX algorithm)

**What is Volatility in the NNFX trading system?**

In the NNFX (No Nonsense Forex) trading system, ATR (Average True Range) is typically used to measure the volatility of an asset. It is used as a part of the system to help determine the appropriate stop loss and take profit levels for a trade. ATR is calculated by taking the average of the true range values over a specified period.

True range is calculated as the maximum of the following values:

-Current high minus the current low

-Absolute value of the current high minus the previous close

-Absolute value of the current low minus the previous close

ATR is a dynamic indicator that changes with changes in volatility. As volatility increases, the value of ATR increases, and as volatility decreases, the value of ATR decreases. By using ATR in NNFX system, traders can adjust their stop loss and take profit levels according to the volatility of the asset being traded. This helps to ensure that the trade is given enough room to move, while also minimizing potential losses.

Other types of volatility include True Range Double (TRD), Close-to-Close, and Garman-Klass

**What is a Baseline indicator?**

The baseline is essentially a moving average, and is used to determine the overall direction of the market.

The baseline in the NNFX system is used to filter out trades that are not in line with the long-term trend of the market. The baseline is plotted on the chart along with other indicators, such as the Moving Average (MA), the Relative Strength Index (RSI), and the Average True Range (ATR).

Trades are only taken when the price is in the same direction as the baseline. For example, if the baseline is sloping upwards, only long trades are taken, and if the baseline is sloping downwards, only short trades are taken. This approach helps to ensure that trades are in line with the overall trend of the market, and reduces the risk of entering trades that are likely to fail.

By using a baseline in the NNFX system, traders can have a clear reference point for determining the overall trend of the market, and can make more informed trading decisions. The baseline helps to filter out noise and false signals, and ensures that trades are taken in the direction of the long-term trend.

**What is a Confirmation indicator?**

Confirmation indicators are technical indicators that are used to confirm the signals generated by primary indicators. Primary indicators are the core indicators used in the NNFX system, such as the Average True Range (ATR), the Moving Average (MA), and the Relative Strength Index (RSI).

The purpose of the confirmation indicators is to reduce false signals and improve the accuracy of the trading system. They are designed to confirm the signals generated by the primary indicators by providing additional information about the strength and direction of the trend.

Some examples of confirmation indicators that may be used in the NNFX system include the Bollinger Bands, the MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence), and the MACD Oscillator. These indicators can provide information about the volatility, momentum, and trend strength of the market, and can be used to confirm the signals generated by the primary indicators.

In the NNFX system, confirmation indicators are used in combination with primary indicators and other filters to create a trading system that is robust and reliable. By using multiple indicators to confirm trading signals, the system aims to reduce the risk of false signals and improve the overall profitability of the trades.

**What is a Continuation indicator?**

In the NNFX (No Nonsense Forex) trading system, a continuation indicator is a technical indicator that is used to confirm a current trend and predict that the trend is likely to continue in the same direction. A continuation indicator is typically used in conjunction with other indicators in the system, such as a baseline indicator, to provide a comprehensive trading strategy.

**What is a Volatility/Volume indicator?**

Volume indicators, such as the On Balance Volume (OBV), the Chaikin Money Flow (CMF), or the Volume Price Trend (VPT), are used to measure the amount of buying and selling activity in a market. They are based on the trading volume of the market, and can provide information about the strength of the trend. In the NNFX system, volume indicators are used to confirm trading signals generated by the Moving Average and the Relative Strength Index. Volatility indicators include Average Direction Index, Waddah Attar, and Volatility Ratio. In the NNFX trading system, volatility is a proxy for volume and vice versa.

By using volume indicators as confirmation tools, the NNFX trading system aims to reduce the risk of false signals and improve the overall profitability of trades. These indicators can provide additional information about the market that is not captured by the primary indicators, and can help traders to make more informed trading decisions. In addition, volume indicators can be used to identify potential changes in market trends and to confirm the strength of price movements.

**What is an Exit indicator?**

The exit indicator is used in conjunction with other indicators in the system, such as the Moving Average (MA), the Relative Strength Index (RSI), and the Average True Range (ATR), to provide a comprehensive trading strategy.

The exit indicator in the NNFX system can be any technical indicator that is deemed effective at identifying optimal exit points. Examples of exit indicators that are commonly used include the Parabolic SAR, the Average Directional Index (ADX), and the Chandelier Exit.

The purpose of the exit indicator is to identify when a trend is likely to reverse or when the market conditions have changed, signaling the need to exit a trade. By using an exit indicator, traders can manage their risk and prevent significant losses.

In the NNFX system, the exit indicator is used in conjunction with a stop loss and a take profit order to maximize profits and minimize losses. The stop loss order is used to limit the amount of loss that can be incurred if the trade goes against the trader, while the take profit order is used to lock in profits when the trade is moving in the trader's favor.

Overall, the use of an exit indicator in the NNFX trading system is an important component of a comprehensive trading strategy. It allows traders to manage their risk effectively and improve the profitability of their trades by exiting at the right time.

**What is an Metamorphosis indicator?**

The concept of a metamorphosis indicator involves the integration of two or more GKD indicators to generate a compound signal. This is achieved by evaluating the accuracy of each indicator and selecting the signal from the indicator with the highest accuracy. As an illustration, let's consider a scenario where we calculate the accuracy of 10 indicators and choose the signal from the indicator that demonstrates the highest accuracy.

The resulting output from the metamorphosis indicator can then be utilized in a GKD-BT backtest by occupying a slot that aligns with the purpose of the metamorphosis indicator. The slot can be a GKD-B, GKD-C, or GKD-E slot, depending on the specific requirements and objectives of the indicator. This allows for seamless integration and utilization of the compound signal within the GKD-BT framework.

How does Loxx's GKD (Giga Kaleidoscope Modularized Trading System) implement the NNFX algorithm outlined above?

Loxx's GKD v2.0 system has five types of modules (indicators/strategies). These modules are:

1. GKD-BT - Backtesting module (Volatility, Number 1 in the NNFX algorithm)

2. GKD-B - Baseline module (Baseline and Volatility/Volume, Numbers 1 and 2 in the NNFX algorithm)

3. GKD-C - Confirmation 1/2 and Continuation module (Confirmation 1/2 and Continuation, Numbers 3, 4, and 5 in the NNFX algorithm)

4. GKD-V - Volatility/Volume module (Confirmation 1/2, Number 6 in the NNFX algorithm)

5. GKD-E - Exit module (Exit, Number 7 in the NNFX algorithm)

6. GKD-M - Metamorphosis module (Metamorphosis, Number 8 in the NNFX algorithm, but not part of the NNFX algorithm)

(additional module types will added in future releases)

Each module interacts with every module by passing data to A backtest module wherein the various components of the GKD system are combined to create a trading signal.

That is, the Baseline indicator passes its data to Volatility/Volume. The Volatility/Volume indicator passes its values to the Confirmation 1 indicator. The Confirmation 1 indicator passes its values to the Confirmation 2 indicator. The Confirmation 2 indicator passes its values to the Continuation indicator. The Continuation indicator passes its values to the Exit indicator, and finally, the Exit indicator passes its values to the Backtest strategy.

This chaining of indicators requires that each module conform to Loxx's GKD protocol, therefore allowing for the testing of every possible combination of technical indicators that make up the six components of the NNFX algorithm.

**What does the application of the GKD trading system look like?**

Example trading system:

Backtest: Optimizer Full GKD Backtest as shown on the chart above

Baseline: Hull Moving Average

Volatility/Volume: Hurst Exponent

Confirmation 1: Fisher Transofrm as shown on the chart above

Confirmation 2: uf2018

Continuation: Coppock Curve

Exit: Rex Oscillator

Metamorphosis: Baseline Optimizer

Each GKD indicator is denoted with a module identifier of either: GKD-BT, GKD-B, GKD-C, GKD-V, GKD-M, or GKD-E. This allows traders to understand to which module each indicator belongs and where each indicator fits into the GKD system.

**█ Giga Kaleidoscope Modularized Trading System Signals**

**Standard Entry**

1. GKD-C Confirmation gives signal

2. Baseline agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Confirmation 2 agrees

6. Volatility/Volume agrees

**1-Candle Standard Entry**

1a. GKD-C Confirmation gives signal

2a. Baseline agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

**Next Candle**

1b. Price retraced

2b. Baseline agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Volatility/Volume agrees

**Baseline Entry**

1. GKD-B Baseline gives signal

2. Confirmation 1 agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Confirmation 2 agrees

6. Volatility/Volume agrees

7. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSBC Bars Back' prior

**1-Candle Baseline Entry**

1a. GKD-B Baseline gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5a. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSBC Bars Back' prior

**Next Candle**

1b. Price retraced

2b. Baseline agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Volatility/Volume agrees

**Volatility/Volume Entry**

1. GKD-V Volatility/Volume gives signal

2. Confirmation 1 agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Confirmation 2 agrees

6. Baseline agrees

7. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 7 candles prior

**1-Candle Volatility/Volume Entry**

1a. GKD-V Volatility/Volume gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5a. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSVVC Bars Back' prior

**Next Candle**

1b. Price retraced

2b. Volatility/Volume agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Baseline agrees

**Confirmation 2 Entry**

1. GKD-C Confirmation 2 gives signal

2. Confirmation 1 agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Volatility/Volume agrees

6. Baseline agrees

7. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 7 candles prior

**1-Candle Confirmation 2 Entry**

1a. GKD-C Confirmation 2 gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5a. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSC2C Bars Back' prior

**Next Candle**

1b. Price retraced

2b. Confirmation 2 agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Volatility/Volume agrees

5b. Baseline agrees

**PullBack Entry**

1a. GKD-B Baseline gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price is beyond 1.0x Volatility of Baseline

**Next Candle**

1b. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

2b. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Volatility/Volume agrees

**Continuation Entry**

1. Standard Entry, 1-Candle Standard Entry, Baseline Entry, 1-Candle Baseline Entry, Volatility/Volume Entry, 1-Candle Volatility/Volume Entry, Confirmation 2 Entry, 1-Candle Confirmation 2 Entry, or Pullback entry triggered previously

2. Baseline hasn't crossed since entry signal trigger

4. Confirmation 1 agrees

5. Baseline agrees

6. Confirmation 2 agrees

**█ Connecting to Backtests**

All GKD indicators are chained indicators meaning you export the value of the indicators to specialized backtest to creat your GKD trading system. Each indicator contains a proprietary signal generation algo that will only work with GKD backtests. You can find these backtests using the links below.

GKD-BT Giga Confirmation Stack Backtest

GKD-BT Giga Stacks Backtest

GKD-BT Full Giga Kaleidoscope Backtest

GKD-BT Solo Confirmation Super Complex Backtest

GKD-BT Solo Confirmation Complex Backtest

GKD-BT Solo Confirmation Simple Backtest

GKD-M Baseline Optimizer

GKD-M Accuracy Alchemist

GKD-BT Optimizer SCC Backtest

GKD-BT Optimizer SCS Backtest

GKD-BT Optimizer SCS Backtest

GKD-C GKD-BT Optimizer Full GKD Backtest

The Optimizer SCS Backtest is a Solo Confirmation Simple backtest that allows traders to test single GKD-C confirmation indicators across 10 varying inputs. The purpose of this backtest is to enable traders to optimize a GKD-C indicator given varying inputs.

The backtest module supports testing with 1 take profit and 1 stop loss. It also offers the option to limit testing to a specific date range, allowing simulated forward testing using historical data. This backtest module only includes standard long and short signals. Additionally, users can choose to display or hide a trading panel that provides relevant information about the backtest, statistics, and the current trade. Traders can also select a highlighting treshold for Total Percent Wins and Percent Profitable, and Profit Factor.

To use this indicator:

1. Import a GKD-C indicator "Input into NEW GKD-BT Optimizer Backtest Signals" into the GKD-C Indicator Signals dropdown

1. Import a GKD-C indicator "Input into NEW GKD-BT Optimizer Backtest Start" into the GKD-C Indicator Start dropdown

1. Import a GKD-C indicator "Input into NEW GKD-BT Optimizer Backtest Skip" into the GKD-C Indicator Skip dropdown

1. Net profit: Overall profit or loss achieved.

2. Total Closed Trades: Total number of closed trades, both winning and losing.

3. Total Percent Wins: Total wins, whether long or short, for the selected time interval regardless of commissions and other profit-modifying addons.

4. Percent Profitable: Total wins, whether long or short, that are also profitable, taking commissions into account.

5. Profit Factor: The ratio of gross profits to gross losses, indicating how much money the strategy made for every unit of money it lost.

6. Average Profit per Trade: The average gain or loss per trade, calculated by dividing the net profit by the total number of closed trades.

7. Average Number of Bars in Trade: The average number of bars that elapsed during trades for all closed trades.

Input Tickers separated by commas: Allows the user to input tickers separated by commas, specifying the symbols or tickers of financial instruments used in the backtest. The tickers should follow the format "EXCHANGE:TICKER" (e.g., "NASDAQ:AAPL, NYSE:MSFT").

Import GKD-B Baseline: Imports the "GKD-B Multi-Ticker Baseline" indicator.

Import GKD-V Volatility/Volume: Imports the "GKD-V Volatility/Volume" indicator.

Import GKD-C Confirmation: Imports the "GKD-C Confirmation" indicator.

Import GKD-C Continuation: Imports the "GKD-C Continuation" indicator.

Initial Capital: Represents the starting account balance for the backtest, denominated in the base currency of the trading account.

Order Size: Determines the quantity of contracts traded in each trade.

Order Type: Specifies the type of order used in the backtest, either "Contracts" or "% Equity."

Commission: Represents the commission per order or transaction cost incurred in each trade.

The GKD system utilizes volatility-based take profits and stop losses. Each take profit and stop loss is calculated as a multiple of volatility. You can change the values of the multipliers in the settings as well.

This module includes 17 types of volatility:

Close-to-Close

Parkinson

Garman-Klass

Rogers-Satchell

Yang-Zhang

Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang

Exponential Weighted Moving Average

Standard Deviation of Log Returns

Pseudo GARCH(2,2)

Average True Range

True Range Double

Standard Deviation

Adaptive Deviation

Median Absolute Deviation

Efficiency-Ratio Adaptive ATR

Mean Absolute Deviation

Static Percent

Various volatility estimators and indicators that investors and traders can use to measure the dispersion or volatility of a financial instrument's price. Each estimator has its strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of estimator should depend on the specific needs and circumstances of the user.

Close-to-Close

Close-to-Close volatility is a classic and widely used volatility measure, sometimes referred to as historical volatility.

Volatility is an indicator of the speed of a stock price change. A stock with high volatility is one where the price changes rapidly and with a larger amplitude. The more volatile a stock is, the riskier it is.

Close-to-close historical volatility is calculated using only a stock's closing prices. It is the simplest volatility estimator. However, in many cases, it is not precise enough. Stock prices could jump significantly during a trading session and return to the opening value at the end. That means that a considerable amount of price information is not taken into account by close-to-close volatility.

Despite its drawbacks, Close-to-Close volatility is still useful in cases where the instrument doesn't have intraday prices. For example, mutual funds calculate their net asset values daily or weekly, and thus their prices are not suitable for more sophisticated volatility estimators.

Parkinson

Parkinson volatility is a volatility measure that uses the stock’s high and low price of the day.

The main difference between regular volatility and Parkinson volatility is that the latter uses high and low prices for a day, rather than only the closing price. This is useful as close-to-close prices could show little difference while large price movements could have occurred during the day. Thus, Parkinson's volatility is considered more precise and requires less data for calculation than close-to-close volatility.

One drawback of this estimator is that it doesn't take into account price movements after the market closes. Hence, it systematically undervalues volatility. This drawback is addressed in the Garman-Klass volatility estimator.

Garman-Klass

Garman-Klass is a volatility estimator that incorporates open, low, high, and close prices of a security.

Garman-Klass volatility extends Parkinson's volatility by taking into account the opening and closing prices. As markets are most active during the opening and closing of a trading session, it makes volatility estimation more accurate.

Garman and Klass also assumed that the process of price change follows a continuous diffusion process (Geometric Brownian motion). However, this assumption has several drawbacks. The method is not robust for opening jumps in price and trend movements.

Despite its drawbacks, the Garman-Klass estimator is still more effective than the basic formula since it takes into account not only the price at the beginning and end of the time interval but also intraday price extremes.

Researchers Rogers and Satchell have proposed a more efficient method for assessing historical volatility that takes into account price trends. See Rogers-Satchell Volatility for more detail.

Rogers-Satchell

Rogers-Satchell is an estimator for measuring the volatility of securities with an average return not equal to zero.

Unlike Parkinson and Garman-Klass estimators, Rogers-Satchell incorporates a drift term (mean return not equal to zero). As a result, it provides better volatility estimation when the underlying is trending.

The main disadvantage of this method is that it does not take into account price movements between trading sessions. This leads to an underestimation of volatility since price jumps periodically occur in the market precisely at the moments between sessions.

A more comprehensive estimator that also considers the gaps between sessions was developed based on the Rogers-Satchel formula in the 2000s by Yang-Zhang. See Yang Zhang Volatility for more detail.

Yang-Zhang

Yang Zhang is a historical volatility estimator that handles both opening jumps and the drift and has a minimum estimation error.

Yang-Zhang volatility can be thought of as a combination of the overnight (close-to-open volatility) and a weighted average of the Rogers-Satchell volatility and the day’s open-to-close volatility. It is considered to be 14 times more efficient than the close-to-close estimator.

Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang

Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang (GKYZ) volatility estimator incorporates the returns of open, high, low, and closing prices in its calculation.

GKYZ volatility estimator takes into account overnight jumps but not the trend, i.e., it assumes that the underlying asset follows a Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) process with zero drift. Therefore, the GKYZ volatility estimator tends to overestimate the volatility when the drift is different from zero. However, for a GBM process, this estimator is eight times more efficient than the close-to-close volatility estimator.

Exponential Weighted Moving Average

The Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) is a quantitative or statistical measure used to model or describe a time series. The EWMA is widely used in finance, with the main applications being technical analysis and volatility modeling.

The moving average is designed such that older observations are given lower weights. The weights decrease exponentially as the data point gets older – hence the name exponentially weighted.

The only decision a user of the EWMA must make is the parameter lambda. The parameter decides how important the current observation is in the calculation of the EWMA. The higher the value of lambda, the more closely the EWMA tracks the original time series.

Standard Deviation of Log Returns

This is the simplest calculation of volatility. It's the standard deviation of ln(close/close(1)).

Pseudo GARCH(2,2)

This is calculated using a short- and long-run mean of variance multiplied by ?.

?avg(var;M) + (1 ? ?) avg(var;N) = 2?var/(M+1-(M-1)L) + 2(1-?)var/(M+1-(M-1)L)

Solving for ? can be done by minimizing the mean squared error of estimation; that is, regressing L^-1var - avg(var; N) against avg(var; M) - avg(var; N) and using the resulting beta estimate as ?.

Average True Range

The average true range (ATR) is a technical analysis indicator, introduced by market technician J. Welles Wilder Jr. in his book New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems, that measures market volatility by decomposing the entire range of an asset price for that period.

The true range indicator is taken as the greatest of the following: current high less the current low; the absolute value of the current high less the previous close; and the absolute value of the current low less the previous close. The ATR is then a moving average, generally using 14 days, of the true ranges.

True Range Double

A special case of ATR that attempts to correct for volatility skew.

Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is a statistic that measures the dispersion of a dataset relative to its mean and is calculated as the square root of the variance. The standard deviation is calculated as the square root of variance by determining each data point's deviation relative to the mean. If the data points are further from the mean, there is a higher deviation within the data set; thus, the more spread out the data, the higher the standard deviation.

Adaptive Deviation

By definition, the Standard Deviation (STD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma ? or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. In technical analysis, we usually use it to measure the level of current volatility.

Standard Deviation is based on Simple Moving Average calculation for mean value. This version of standard deviation uses the properties of EMA to calculate what can be called a new type of deviation, and since it is based on EMA, we can call it EMA deviation. Additionally, Perry Kaufman's efficiency ratio is used to make it adaptive (since all EMA type calculations are nearly perfect for adapting).

The difference when compared to the standard is significant--not just because of EMA usage, but the efficiency ratio makes it a "bit more logical" in very volatile market conditions.

Median Absolute Deviation

The median absolute deviation is a measure of statistical dispersion. Moreover, the MAD is a robust statistic, being more resilient to outliers in a data set than the standard deviation. In the standard deviation, the distances from the mean are squared, so large deviations are weighted more heavily, and thus outliers can heavily influence it. In the MAD, the deviations of a small number of outliers are irrelevant.

Because the MAD is a more robust estimator of scale than the sample variance or standard deviation, it works better with distributions without a mean or variance, such as the Cauchy distribution.

For this indicator, a manual recreation of the quantile function in Pine Script is used. This is so users have a full inside view into how this is calculated.

Efficiency-Ratio Adaptive ATR

Average True Range (ATR) is a widely used indicator for many occasions in technical analysis. It is calculated as the RMA of the true range. This version adds a "twist": it uses Perry Kaufman's Efficiency Ratio to calculate adaptive true range.

Mean Absolute Deviation

The mean absolute deviation (MAD) is a measure of variability that indicates the average distance between observations and their mean. MAD uses the original units of the data, which simplifies interpretation. Larger values signify that the data points spread out further from the average. Conversely, lower values correspond to data points bunching closer to it. The mean absolute deviation is also known as the mean deviation and average absolute deviation.

This definition of the mean absolute deviation sounds similar to the standard deviation (SD). While both measure variability, they have different calculations. In recent years, some proponents of MAD have suggested that it replace the SD as the primary measure because it is a simpler concept that better fits real life.

The NNFX algorithm is built on the principles of trend, momentum, and volatility. There are six core components in the NNFX trading algorithm:

1. Volatility - price volatility; e.g., Average True Range, True Range Double, Close-to-Close, etc.

2. Baseline - a moving average to identify price trend

3. Confirmation 1 - a technical indicator used to identify trends

4. Confirmation 2 - a technical indicator used to identify trends

5. Continuation - a technical indicator used to identify trends

6. Volatility/Volume - a technical indicator used to identify volatility/volume breakouts/breakdown

7. Exit - a technical indicator used to determine when a trend is exhausted

8. Metamorphosis - a technical indicator that produces a compound signal from the combination of other GKD indicators*

*(not part of the NNFX algorithm)

In the NNFX (No Nonsense Forex) trading system, ATR (Average True Range) is typically used to measure the volatility of an asset. It is used as a part of the system to help determine the appropriate stop loss and take profit levels for a trade. ATR is calculated by taking the average of the true range values over a specified period.

True range is calculated as the maximum of the following values:

-Current high minus the current low

-Absolute value of the current high minus the previous close

-Absolute value of the current low minus the previous close

ATR is a dynamic indicator that changes with changes in volatility. As volatility increases, the value of ATR increases, and as volatility decreases, the value of ATR decreases. By using ATR in NNFX system, traders can adjust their stop loss and take profit levels according to the volatility of the asset being traded. This helps to ensure that the trade is given enough room to move, while also minimizing potential losses.

Other types of volatility include True Range Double (TRD), Close-to-Close, and Garman-Klass

The baseline is essentially a moving average, and is used to determine the overall direction of the market.

The baseline in the NNFX system is used to filter out trades that are not in line with the long-term trend of the market. The baseline is plotted on the chart along with other indicators, such as the Moving Average (MA), the Relative Strength Index (RSI), and the Average True Range (ATR).

Trades are only taken when the price is in the same direction as the baseline. For example, if the baseline is sloping upwards, only long trades are taken, and if the baseline is sloping downwards, only short trades are taken. This approach helps to ensure that trades are in line with the overall trend of the market, and reduces the risk of entering trades that are likely to fail.

By using a baseline in the NNFX system, traders can have a clear reference point for determining the overall trend of the market, and can make more informed trading decisions. The baseline helps to filter out noise and false signals, and ensures that trades are taken in the direction of the long-term trend.

Confirmation indicators are technical indicators that are used to confirm the signals generated by primary indicators. Primary indicators are the core indicators used in the NNFX system, such as the Average True Range (ATR), the Moving Average (MA), and the Relative Strength Index (RSI).

The purpose of the confirmation indicators is to reduce false signals and improve the accuracy of the trading system. They are designed to confirm the signals generated by the primary indicators by providing additional information about the strength and direction of the trend.

Some examples of confirmation indicators that may be used in the NNFX system include the Bollinger Bands, the MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence), and the MACD Oscillator. These indicators can provide information about the volatility, momentum, and trend strength of the market, and can be used to confirm the signals generated by the primary indicators.

In the NNFX system, confirmation indicators are used in combination with primary indicators and other filters to create a trading system that is robust and reliable. By using multiple indicators to confirm trading signals, the system aims to reduce the risk of false signals and improve the overall profitability of the trades.

In the NNFX (No Nonsense Forex) trading system, a continuation indicator is a technical indicator that is used to confirm a current trend and predict that the trend is likely to continue in the same direction. A continuation indicator is typically used in conjunction with other indicators in the system, such as a baseline indicator, to provide a comprehensive trading strategy.

Volume indicators, such as the On Balance Volume (OBV), the Chaikin Money Flow (CMF), or the Volume Price Trend (VPT), are used to measure the amount of buying and selling activity in a market. They are based on the trading volume of the market, and can provide information about the strength of the trend. In the NNFX system, volume indicators are used to confirm trading signals generated by the Moving Average and the Relative Strength Index. Volatility indicators include Average Direction Index, Waddah Attar, and Volatility Ratio. In the NNFX trading system, volatility is a proxy for volume and vice versa.

By using volume indicators as confirmation tools, the NNFX trading system aims to reduce the risk of false signals and improve the overall profitability of trades. These indicators can provide additional information about the market that is not captured by the primary indicators, and can help traders to make more informed trading decisions. In addition, volume indicators can be used to identify potential changes in market trends and to confirm the strength of price movements.

The exit indicator is used in conjunction with other indicators in the system, such as the Moving Average (MA), the Relative Strength Index (RSI), and the Average True Range (ATR), to provide a comprehensive trading strategy.

The exit indicator in the NNFX system can be any technical indicator that is deemed effective at identifying optimal exit points. Examples of exit indicators that are commonly used include the Parabolic SAR, the Average Directional Index (ADX), and the Chandelier Exit.

The purpose of the exit indicator is to identify when a trend is likely to reverse or when the market conditions have changed, signaling the need to exit a trade. By using an exit indicator, traders can manage their risk and prevent significant losses.

In the NNFX system, the exit indicator is used in conjunction with a stop loss and a take profit order to maximize profits and minimize losses. The stop loss order is used to limit the amount of loss that can be incurred if the trade goes against the trader, while the take profit order is used to lock in profits when the trade is moving in the trader's favor.

Overall, the use of an exit indicator in the NNFX trading system is an important component of a comprehensive trading strategy. It allows traders to manage their risk effectively and improve the profitability of their trades by exiting at the right time.

The concept of a metamorphosis indicator involves the integration of two or more GKD indicators to generate a compound signal. This is achieved by evaluating the accuracy of each indicator and selecting the signal from the indicator with the highest accuracy. As an illustration, let's consider a scenario where we calculate the accuracy of 10 indicators and choose the signal from the indicator that demonstrates the highest accuracy.

The resulting output from the metamorphosis indicator can then be utilized in a GKD-BT backtest by occupying a slot that aligns with the purpose of the metamorphosis indicator. The slot can be a GKD-B, GKD-C, or GKD-E slot, depending on the specific requirements and objectives of the indicator. This allows for seamless integration and utilization of the compound signal within the GKD-BT framework.

How does Loxx's GKD (Giga Kaleidoscope Modularized Trading System) implement the NNFX algorithm outlined above?

Loxx's GKD v2.0 system has five types of modules (indicators/strategies). These modules are:

1. GKD-BT - Backtesting module (Volatility, Number 1 in the NNFX algorithm)

2. GKD-B - Baseline module (Baseline and Volatility/Volume, Numbers 1 and 2 in the NNFX algorithm)

3. GKD-C - Confirmation 1/2 and Continuation module (Confirmation 1/2 and Continuation, Numbers 3, 4, and 5 in the NNFX algorithm)

4. GKD-V - Volatility/Volume module (Confirmation 1/2, Number 6 in the NNFX algorithm)

5. GKD-E - Exit module (Exit, Number 7 in the NNFX algorithm)

6. GKD-M - Metamorphosis module (Metamorphosis, Number 8 in the NNFX algorithm, but not part of the NNFX algorithm)

(additional module types will added in future releases)

Each module interacts with every module by passing data to A backtest module wherein the various components of the GKD system are combined to create a trading signal.

That is, the Baseline indicator passes its data to Volatility/Volume. The Volatility/Volume indicator passes its values to the Confirmation 1 indicator. The Confirmation 1 indicator passes its values to the Confirmation 2 indicator. The Confirmation 2 indicator passes its values to the Continuation indicator. The Continuation indicator passes its values to the Exit indicator, and finally, the Exit indicator passes its values to the Backtest strategy.

This chaining of indicators requires that each module conform to Loxx's GKD protocol, therefore allowing for the testing of every possible combination of technical indicators that make up the six components of the NNFX algorithm.

Example trading system:

Backtest: Optimizer Full GKD Backtest as shown on the chart above

Baseline: Hull Moving Average

Volatility/Volume: Hurst Exponent

Confirmation 1: Fisher Transofrm as shown on the chart above

Confirmation 2: uf2018

Continuation: Coppock Curve

Exit: Rex Oscillator

Metamorphosis: Baseline Optimizer

Each GKD indicator is denoted with a module identifier of either: GKD-BT, GKD-B, GKD-C, GKD-V, GKD-M, or GKD-E. This allows traders to understand to which module each indicator belongs and where each indicator fits into the GKD system.

1. GKD-C Confirmation gives signal

2. Baseline agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Confirmation 2 agrees

6. Volatility/Volume agrees

1a. GKD-C Confirmation gives signal

2a. Baseline agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

1b. Price retraced

2b. Baseline agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Volatility/Volume agrees

1. GKD-B Baseline gives signal

2. Confirmation 1 agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Confirmation 2 agrees

6. Volatility/Volume agrees

7. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSBC Bars Back' prior

1a. GKD-B Baseline gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5a. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSBC Bars Back' prior

1b. Price retraced

2b. Baseline agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Volatility/Volume agrees

1. GKD-V Volatility/Volume gives signal

2. Confirmation 1 agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Confirmation 2 agrees

6. Baseline agrees

7. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 7 candles prior

1a. GKD-V Volatility/Volume gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5a. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSVVC Bars Back' prior

1b. Price retraced

2b. Volatility/Volume agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Baseline agrees

1. GKD-C Confirmation 2 gives signal

2. Confirmation 1 agrees

3. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5. Volatility/Volume agrees

6. Baseline agrees

7. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 7 candles prior

1a. GKD-C Confirmation 2 gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

4a. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

5a. Confirmation 1 signal was less than 'Maximum Allowable PSC2C Bars Back' prior

1b. Price retraced

2b. Confirmation 2 agrees

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Volatility/Volume agrees

5b. Baseline agrees

1a. GKD-B Baseline gives signal

2a. Confirmation 1 agrees

3a. Price is beyond 1.0x Volatility of Baseline

1b. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Minimum

2b. Price inside Goldie Locks Zone Maximum

3b. Confirmation 1 agrees

4b. Confirmation 2 agrees

5b. Volatility/Volume agrees

1. Standard Entry, 1-Candle Standard Entry, Baseline Entry, 1-Candle Baseline Entry, Volatility/Volume Entry, 1-Candle Volatility/Volume Entry, Confirmation 2 Entry, 1-Candle Confirmation 2 Entry, or Pullback entry triggered previously

2. Baseline hasn't crossed since entry signal trigger

4. Confirmation 1 agrees

5. Baseline agrees

6. Confirmation 2 agrees

All GKD indicators are chained indicators meaning you export the value of the indicators to specialized backtest to creat your GKD trading system. Each indicator contains a proprietary signal generation algo that will only work with GKD backtests. You can find these backtests using the links below.

GKD-BT Giga Confirmation Stack Backtest

GKD-BT Giga Stacks Backtest

GKD-BT Full Giga Kaleidoscope Backtest

GKD-BT Solo Confirmation Super Complex Backtest

GKD-BT Solo Confirmation Complex Backtest

GKD-BT Solo Confirmation Simple Backtest

GKD-M Baseline Optimizer

GKD-M Accuracy Alchemist

GKD-BT Optimizer SCC Backtest

GKD-BT Optimizer SCS Backtest

GKD-BT Optimizer SCS Backtest

GKD-C GKD-BT Optimizer Full GKD Backtest

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